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src="/plus/count.php?view=yes&aid=7492&mid=1536" type='text/javascript' language="javascript"></script> æ¬?/p> <div class="zxmainlcont"> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    地铁车站的施工方法的选择不仅要满è¶?a href="http://www.chinatesting.com.cn/0hyzx/b/201411462.html"><span style="color:#0000cd;">地铁工程</span></a>本身的使用功能,同时也要满足合理开发利用地上、地下有效空间的要求,并考虑由于施工给周围环境带来的不良影响。其施工方法的选择是否合理,对线路埋深、车站结构型式、工期及土建工程造价等具有极大的影响,直接影响到全线的社会效益、经济效益和环保效益ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    地铁车站的施工方法有<span style="color:#b22222;">明挖法、盖挖法、暗挖法</span>。根据《地铁设计规范》(GB50157-2003),盖挖法现已归并到明挖法中;暗挖法包括盾构法和矿山法,在我国,一般特指矿山法ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    各施工方法详述如下:</span></div> <div> <strong><span style="font-size:14px;">    1ã€?span style="color:#b22222;">明挖æ³?/span>-系指由地面挖开的基坑中修筑地下构筑物的方法ã€?/span></strong></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    明挖法施工系指从地面向下开挖至基坑底面后,再自下而上浇注车站结构,然后回填土方,恢复路面。明挖法施工具有以下特点ï¼?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    1)施工安全,质量容易保证ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    2)结合地面工程改造及开发,其综合工程造价优势显著ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    3)施工作业面开阔,有利于提高工效、缩短工期ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    4)施工降、排水容易。结构防水简单,质量可靠ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    5)施工期间对周围环境或道路交通影响大,且易受到气象条件的影响ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    6ï¼?a href="http://www.chinatesting.com.cn/0jswx/b/2015047391.html"><span style="color:#0000cd;">基坑</span></a>较深时,须采取措施防止基坑变形及其周围地面沉降ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    明挖顺作法一般适用于地面有条件敞口开挖,且有足够施工场地的情况。当站位设在现状道路范围外;或站位设在现状道路下,但施工允许暂时中断交通或结合地面拆迁及道路拓宽,使地面交通客流得以疏散时,就有可能采用明挖法施工ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    当车站位äº?ldquo;å?rdquo;字交通道路下时,为减少与车站垂直方向道路的影响,也可纵向分段施工,此时,前后施工段之间需设置临时封堵墙ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    具体实例如图ï¼?/span> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q24241158.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 406px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q24351640.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 414px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q244235R.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 410px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;">å›? æ˜ŽæŒ–法施工现åœ?/span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q24RL40.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 205px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q2444Lb.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 412px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q24509638.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 215px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q24U4W0.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 381px; " /><br /> å›?  明挖法施工工序图-叠合墙结æž?/span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q245492N.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 301px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;">å›? æ˜ŽæŒ–法施工工序图-复合墙结æž?/span></div> <br /> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    在施工过程中,常会碰到一些不可预见或者临时发现而且难以改移的地下管线通过明挖区域,此时需要采取一些悬吊或者临时保护的措施,出现此种情况往往要消耗较多的时间和精力去处理,对施工也会带来较大的不便,在设计时应引起重视ã€?/span></div> <div> <strong><span style="font-size:14px;">    2ã€?span style="color:#b22222;">盖挖æ³?/span>—先修建临时(或永久)路面系统后分层开挖、修筑主体结构的方法ã€?/span></strong></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    盖挖法是在地面修筑维持地面交通的临时(或永久)路面系统后,构筑地铁车站的施工方法ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    盖挖法根据其临时路面系统的构成及修建顺序,可分为盖挖顺作法和盖挖逆作法。分述如下:</span></div> <div> <strong><span style="font-size:14px;">    1)盖挖顺筑法</span></strong></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    其方法是在地面修筑维持地面交通的临时路面及其支撑后,自上而下开挖土方至坑底设计标高,再自下而上修筑结构的方法。盖挖顺筑法的路面系统由钢梁及路面盖板、围护结构组成,其中钢梁及路面盖板为临时结构,车站施工完成后需拆除,其作业程序是:</span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)局部的交通疏解或围挡,作好外围结构;</span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)用钢梁及路面盖板组成的盖挖系统覆盖路面,恢复交通;</span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)在盖挖系统的保护下顺序的进行车站主体结构的作业ï¼?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)拆除盖挖系统,恢复永久路面ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    当路面盖板根据需要仅铺设一部分时,为半盖挖顺筑法ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    除了临时路面系统外,盖挖顺筑法的作业程序、结构方案与明挖法完全一致。其特点为:</span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)封闭道路时间比较短暂,而且允许分段实施,一旦路面先期恢复(或盖挖系统完成后),后续施工对地面交通几乎不再产生影响ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)盖挖系统的存在,使得工程造价较高;而且挖土是在顶部封闭(或半封闭的)状态下进行,大型机械应用受到限制,施工工期较明挖法长ã€?/span> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q25429529.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 393px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;">å›? ç›–挖顺作法施工现åœ?/span></div> <div style="text-align: center; ">  </div> <div> <div> <span style="font-size: 14px; ">    </span><span style="font-size:14px;">典型的半盖挖顺作法的施工工序如图,其要点是每步施工过程(工序)时,均根据路面通行要求设置相应宽度的路面系统ã€?/span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q25553948.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 295px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q25615300.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 293px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q2563I63.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 268px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q25FAU.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 289px; " /></span></div> <div> <strong><span style="font-size:14px;">    2)盖挖逆筑æ³?/span></strong></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    其作业顺序与明挖法相反,方法是开挖地面修筑结构顶板及其竖向支撑结构后,在顶板的下面自上而下分层开挖土方、分层修筑结构ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    盖挖逆筑法的路面系统由车站顶板、中间支承、围护结构组成,一般均为永久结构ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    其作业程序为ï¼?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)部分或全部封闭道路交通,作好中间支承柱及边墙围护结构ï¼?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)明挖至顶板底面标高处,浇注顶板,回填覆土并恢复交通;</span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)在上部顶盖结构的保护下,继续向下开挖基坑,并施工剩余车站结构ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    盖挖逆筑法的特点为:</span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)对周围环境的干扰时间较短,对防止地面沉降及对周围建筑物和地下管线的保护具有良好的效果ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)结构的主要受力构件常兼有临时结构和永久结构的双重功能ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)盖挖逆作法需设置中间竖向临时支承系统,与侧墙共同承受结构封底前的竖向载荷ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)对地下连续墙、中间支承柱与底板、楼盖的连接节点需进行处理ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)本工法的施工难度、施工工期及土建造价均属中等水平ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    盖挖顺筑法对路面干扰较盖挖逆作法小,通过合理组织车行路线,可以保证施工期间路面的交通,车站防水质量也较盖挖逆筑法好ã€?/span></div> <div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    当车站位于现状道路或跨越路口,或处于比较繁华而狭窄的街道下,无明挖条件,但允许短时间中断交通或局部交通改移时,可采用盖挖法施工。典型的半盖挖逆作法施工工序如图:</span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q25944137.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 221px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q3000IV.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 236px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q30032K0.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 239px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q30105F0.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 249px; " /></span></div> <div> <span style="color:#b22222;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14px; ">    3、暗挖法</span></strong></span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    当车站通过繁忙交通地段,或因其它原因不允许封闭路面交通或车站位于较完整的岩石地层且地下水不发育时,可采用暗挖法施工。设计时,应对车站结构的设计方案和施工方法的可行性进行论è¯?经技术经济比较后确定ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    暗挖法已广为采用的有盾构法(如图2-9)、顶管法、矿山法(如å›?-10ã€?1)等。盾构法是地层掘进、出土运输、衬砌拼装、接缝防水和注浆充填盾尾间隙等主要作业都在盾构保护下进行,并通过控制开挖面压力、盾尾注浆等措施控制地面沉降,是工艺技术要求较高、综合性较强的一种施工方法,主要适用于各类软土地层和软岩地层,尤其适用于市区地铁和水底隧道。盾构法施工车站因设备费较高,目前在国内尚未应用。顶管法主要适用于车站下穿营业铁路线时,为保证铁路的安全运营,将铁路路基一侧预制好的钢筋混凝土箱形框架,采用高压油泵带动油压千斤顶,并借助于预先修好的后背支承,顶入铁路路基内,成为与铁路立交的地下车站。由于地铁车站框架断面尺寸较大,在既有铁路下顶进风险较大,且铁路管理部门一般不同意用这种方案在既有铁路站场下修建地铁站,因此国内尚未有此类车站ã€?/span><br />  </div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q30354451.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 418px; " /></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;">å›?-9 法国-大型盾构机施工的地下车站</span><br />  </div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q30434204.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 413px; " /></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;">å›?-10 暗挖法施工现场图(全断面法)</span><br />  </div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q30501336.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 443px; " /></span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <br /> <span style="font-size:14px;">å›?-11 暗挖法施工现场图二(CRD 法)</span></div> </div> <div> <div> <strong><span style="font-size:14px;">    1)矿山法施工的地铁车站的适用情形主要有以下几方面ï¼?/span></strong></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)矿山法车站主要适用于施工时不允许干扰地面交通,或因埋深过大,或拆迁过多,采用明、盖挖施工非常不经济时ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)在埋深较大、硬质围岩时,矿山法车站有较好的适应性ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)在第四系的松散地层中用矿山法修建地铁车站时,必须与明、盖挖方案进行全面比较,经过充分论证后采用ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)对饱和软土地层无法疏干地下水,或者即便进行预加固和预处理,开挖后的自稳性仍很差时,可视为不适合采用矿山法施工ã€?/span></div> <div> <strong><span style="font-size:14px;">    2)矿山法施工的车站主要优缺点ï¼?/span></strong></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)除竖井外,地面作业很少,对地面交通、地下管线、地表建筑物等周围环境影响较小,下穿河底时,不影响通航,也不受气候的影响。随着地铁车站埋深增大,其优点更加突出ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)矿山法车站施工难度大、安全性差、造价高、工期长,而且从使用功能和运营质量分析,也远不如明、盖挖车站ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    暗挖法的最大优点就是施工时对路面交通没有干扰,对地下管线的改迁少,而且地面拆迁量也少。围岩是否有足够的自稳能力,是能否采用暗挖法施工的关键。如果围岩级别在IV 级或IV 级以下时,施工不必采用特别的措施,否则由于围岩的自稳能力较差,应采用特别的施工辅助措施,如采用超前注浆法对隧道周围及掌子面前方的土层进行预加固,代价通常是很高的,且质量又较难保证。一般说来,在地下水位较高的软弱土层中不考虑采用暗挖法施工,如上海等地ã€?/span></div> <div> <strong><span style="font-size:14px;">    3)矿山法的主要施工方æ³?/span></strong></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)矿山法施工应遵循新奥法原理,即在监控信息的指导下,根据地层的自稳能力适量开挖,及时施加喷射混凝土衬砌,根据需要增加锚杆、钢筋网、钢架、二次衬砌等支护衬砌措施,使衬砌与围岩共同作用,形成支护体系,使洞室保持稳定。为提高开挖地层的自稳能力,或加大一次开挖尺度,且使工作面土体的有一定的自稳时间,足以进行必要的初期支护作业,常常采用辅助工程措施对地层实施预加固,如冻结法、注浆法、深层水泥搅拌桩(或旋喷桩)法、水平水泥搅拌桩(或旋喷桩)法、管棚法等ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)矿山法一般应遵循的施工原则是:管超前、严注浆、短开挖、强支护、快封闭、早成环、勤量测、二次衬砌紧跟等。该原则基本概括了矿山法施工工艺要求和施工经验,针对车站隧道施工条件和工程措施,合理选择施工原则。当大跨开挖或浅埋暗挖时,为保证施工安全、减少施工对周边环境的影响,更应严密斟酌ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    ï¼?)矿山法施工方案应根据结构型式、围岩条件、辅助工程措施、环境保护要求、施工工艺等分析一次开挖的尺度及支护结构受力状态,综合评定开挖支护的经济合理性。根据地层的稳定条件和车站隧道断面的大小可以选用全断面法、短台阶法、带临时仰拱的上下台阶法。对于断面较大的隧道,考虑分部开挖、分部支护和封闭成环的需要,选择中隔壁法(CD 法)、交叉中隔壁法(CRD法)和侧壁导坑法(眼镜法)。对于多跨大断面隧道,中间立柱必须先行开挖施工,形成支承,相应的施工方案有中洞法、柱洞法等ã€?/span><br />  </div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q30U15O.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 477px; " /></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q3091OI.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 308px; " /></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q31022I8.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 584px; " /></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    暗挖法施工方案的选择还应考虑整个车站施工组织部署的需要、不同隧道断面间的过渡、邻近隧道施工的相互影响、施工工期的要求等因素。利用监控量测获得的信息指导施工,是矿山法施工中必不可少的一个组成部分ã€?拱顶沉降、洞周收敛等主要监测数据反馈,判断施工方法及支护结构的合理性,并据此调整支护参数和施工方法,以期达到安全、经济、快捷的施工效应ã€?/span></div> <div> <span style="font-size:14px;">    三种施工方法的综合比较如表:</span></div> <div style="text-align: center; "> <span style="font-size:14px;"><img alt="" src="/uploads/150418/1536-15041Q31146412.jpg" style="width: 550px; height: 388px; " /></span></div> <div>     <span style="font-size:14px;">根据上表,从功能要求、技术难度、施工质量及经济性等方面出发,明挖法最优,盖挖法次之,暗挖法再次之。明挖法主要缺点是对路面交通影响比较大,而鉴于功能要求、造价和工期等对能否发挥修建地铁的社会效益和经济效益起决定作用,而施工期间对环境的影响只是一种短期效应,所以浅埋地铁车站仍首选明挖法施工ã€?/span></div> </div> <ul class="zxmainpage"></ul> <p class="zxmainlkey">关键词:地铁施工,施工方æ³?/p> <p class="zxmainlfen"><div class="bshare-custom">分享到:<a title="分享到QQ空间" class="bshare-qzone"></a><a title="分享到新浪微å? class="bshare-sinaminiblog"></a><a title="分享到人人网" class="bshare-renren"></a><a title="分享到腾讯微å? class="bshare-qqmb"></a><a title="分享到网易微å? class="bshare-neteasemb"></a><a title="更多平台" class="bshare-more bshare-more-icon more-style-addthis"></a><span class="BSHARE_COUNT bshare-share-count">0</span></div><script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8" 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$DE('commetcontentNew'); var waithtml = "<div style='line-height:30px'><img src='/images/loadinglit.gif' />正在发送中...</div>"; eval('var msg = CKEDITOR.instances.msg_'+fid+'.getData()'); if(f.validate) { if(f.validate.value=='') { alert("请填写验证码ï¼?); return; } else { nvalidate = f.validate.value; } } var myajax = new DedeAjax(taget_obj, false, true, '', '', waithtml); if(f.notuser.checked) nnotuser = '1'; if(f.username) nusername = f.username.value; if(f.pwd) npwd = f.pwd.value; myajax.sendlang = 'utf-8'; myajax.AddKeyN('dopost', 'send'); myajax.AddKeyN('aid', '7492'); myajax.AddKeyN('fid', f.fid.value); myajax.AddKeyN('type', 'ajax'); myajax.AddKeyN('comtype', f.comtype.value); myajax.AddKeyN('isconfirm','yes'); myajax.AddKeyN('typeid', f.typeid.value); myajax.AddKeyN('quotemsg', f.quotemsg.value); myajax.AddKeyN('validate', nvalidate); myajax.AddKeyN('notuser', nnotuser); myajax.AddKeyN('username', nusername); myajax.AddKeyN('pwd', npwd); myajax.AddKeyN('msg', msg); 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